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aromas & flavours

FLOWERS - FRUITS - VEGETABLES - HERBS & SPICES - NUTS, DAIRY & OTHER - NOTES

FRUITS

APPLE
Pomme (F) Apfel (G) Mela (I) Manzana (S)
Ubiquitous in fresh, young white wines made from grapes that are not too ripe, though not necessarily unripe.
Amyl or isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl n-butanoate, phenylethyl acetate, diethyl malonate, methyl-3-ethyl-butanoate, 1,5-dodecanolide
See also
APPLE BLOSSOM, APPLE PEEL, GREEN APPLE, STEWED APPLE

APPLE PEEL
Pelure de pomme (F) Apfelschale (G) Buccia di mela (I) Piel de manzana (S)
Pithy apple character.
Ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl, n-butanoate, hexyl hexanoate
See also
APPLE BLOSSOM, APPLE, GREEN APPLE, STEWED APPLE

APRICOT
Abricot (F) Aprikose (G) Albicocca (I) Albaricoque (S)
Classic varietal character of Viognier, but also found in Riesling, Champagne and others. Apricot kernel (noyau d'abricot) is a more complex version.
1,4-decanolide, amyl propanoate

BANANA
Banane (F) Banane (G) Banana (I) Plátano (S)
Amyl or isoamyl acetate, also known as "Banana Oil" or "Pear Oil", is characteristic of cool-fermented whites and red wines that have undergone carbonic maceration (e.g., Beaujolais Nouveau), whereas a more profound banana character found on the aftertaste of certain Alsace wines is the precursor to bottle-aged spiciness.
Amyl or isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, 1-phenylethyl acetate, 1,5-dodecanolide

BLACKBERRY
Mûre (F) Brombeere (G) Mora di rovo (I) Zarzamora (S)
Ripe Pinot Noir.
Ethyl caprylate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butyrate, amyl propionate

BLACKCURRANT
Cassis (F) Schwarzea Johannisbeere (G) Ribes nero (I) Grosella negra (S)
Usually an attractive aroma, but can be mercaptan fault, in which case the blackcurrant will metamorphose into a garlic odour.
Ethyl acetate, ethyl formate, Mercaptohexan-1-ol

BLUEBERRY
Myrtille (F) Heidelbeere (G) Mirtillo (I) Mirtillo (S)
Also known as bilberry or whortleberry, blueberry is much softer, more perfumed and less intensely flavoured than blackcurrant.
Possibly hexanoate

CHERRY
Cerise (F) Kirsche (G) Ciliegia (I) Cereza (S)
Classic cool-climate Pinot Noir.
Benzaldehyde-cyanohydrin

CITRUS FRUIT
Agrume (F) Zitrusfrüchte (G) Agrumi (I) Citricos (S)
Part of the fresh complexity of many young white wines. Often more complex than a specific citrus fruit.
Limonene, citronellol, linaloöl

CRANBERRY
Canneberge (F) Preiselbeere (G) Ossicocco (I) Arándano (S)
Very much in the cherry-raspberry range of fruit flavours, cranberry can be found in cool-climate Syrah or herbaceous New World Merlot.
Furfural, 1-butanol

DRIED FRUIT
Fruits secs (F) Trockenfrüchte (G) Frutta secca (I) Frutas secas (S)
Found in wines made from sun-dried grapes (e.g., Italian Recioto), also in fortifieds such as Australian Muscat.

FIG
Figue (F) Feige (G) Fico (I) Higuera (S)
Part of the complexity of some mature fine white wines.
Ethyl propionate, isobutyl acetate

GOOSEBERRY
Groseille à maquereau (F) Stachelbeere (G) Uva spina (I) Grosella espinosa (S)
Classic varietal character of Sauvignon Blanc, particularly when grown in Marlborough, New Zealand. Requires 4MMP with ripeness and relatively high tartaric acid. Can be enhanced by yeast strains such as Zymaflore VL3.
4MMP (4-mercapto-4-methyl pentan-2-one)

GRAPE
Raisin (F) Traube (G) Uva (I) Uva (S)
Few wine grapes taste grapy, Muscat being the prime exception.
Ethyl caprylate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl pelargonate

GRAPEFRUIT
Pamplemousse (F) Pampelmuse (G) Pompelmo (I) Pomelo (S)
Found in Gewürztraminer, Scheurebe and sometimes Chardonnay.
Mercaptohexan-1-ol, nerol

GREENGAGE
Reine-Claude (F) Reineclaude (G) Regina Claudia (I) Claudia (S)
Loire Chenin Blanc.
4-MMP (4-mercapto-4-methyl pentan-2-one)

GREEN APPLE
Pomme verte (F) Grüner Apfel (G) Mela verde (I) Manzana verde (S)
Unripeness, usually in taste, as opposed to the pithy yet ripe fruit aroma of a Granny Smith apple.
Malic acid, acetaldehyde, hexanoate
See also
APPLE BLOSSOM, APPLE, APPLE PEEL, STEWED APPLE

LEMON
Citron (F) Zitrone (G) Limone (I) Limón (S)
Suggests a simple commercial quality unless part of a more complex aroma, such as citrus fruit or lemony-oak.
Citric acid, neral, limonene, citral, linaloöl
See CITRUS FRUIT, GRAPEFRUIT, LEMONY OAK, LIME, ORANGE

LIME
Citron vert (F) Limone (G) Limetta (I) Lima (S)
Softer, finer and more complex that lemon, found in Australian Riesling and Sémillon.
Nerol

LYCHEE
Litchi (F) Litschi (G) Litchi (I) Lichi (S)
Part of Gewürztraminer's varietal aroma, between the rose petal and spice.
Cis-rose oxide

MANDARIN
Mandarine (F) Mandarine (G) Mandarino (I) Mandarina (S)
Softer than orange, mandarin suggests more complexity and finesse in Muscat or Riesling.
Undecanol

MELON
Melon (F) Melone (G) Melone (I) Melón (S)
Melon with tropical fruits can be part of warm climate Chardonnay character, but with apple and pear will simply be an amylic aroma.
Trans 2,4-nonadienal, Amyl or isoamyl acetate

MUSCAT
Muscat (F) Muskatraube (G) Moscato (I) Moscatel (S)
The fresh, grapy aroma of the Muscat grape is an aromatic characteristic that can be found in wines other than those made from the Muscat itself.
combination of geraniol, linaloöl and nerol

ORANGE
Orange (F) Orange (G) Arancia (I) Naranja (S)
Many white wines, particularly Muscat and Riesling. Fortifieds.
Limonene, citronelloll, linaloöl, methyl octanoate, 2-undecanone

PASSION FRUIT
Fruit de la passion (F) Passionsfrucht (G) Frutto della passione (I) Pasionaria (S)
New world Sauvignon Blanc.
Mercaptohexanol

PEACH
Pêche (F) Pfirsich (G) Pesca (I) Melocotón (S)
Ripe Riesling as typified by Rheingau and New World Chardonnay.
Piperonal, undecalactone, ethyl formate, 1,4-decanolide, 1,5-decanolide

PEAR
Poire (F) Birne (G) Pera (I) Pera (S)
Amyl or isoamyl acetate , also known as "Banana Oil" or "Pear Oil", is characteristic of cool-fermented whites and red wines that have undergone carbonic maceration (e.g., Beaujolais Nouveau).
Amy or isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, phenylethyl acetate, 1,5-dodecanolide

PINEAPPLE
Ananas (F) Ananas (G) Ananas (I) Piña (S)
Often found in New World Chardonnay. Can be an indication of some botrytised grapes. Ethyl butanoate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butyrate, methyl 3-methylthiopropionate, amyl propionate

PLUM
Prune (F) Pflaume (G) Prugna (I) Ciruela (S)
Mostly confined to red wines, particularly Cabernet Sauvignon and/or Syrah.
Methyl butanoate

PRUNE
Pruneau (F) Backpflaume (G) Prugna secca (I) Ciruela pasa (S)
Italian reds.
Methyl benzoate

QUINCE
Coing (F) Quitte (G) Cotogna (I) Membrillo (S)
A classic reductive aroma.
Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide

RAISIN
Raisin sec (F) Rosine (G) Uva passa (I) Pasa (Sp)
Fortified wines, particularly Muscat. Raisined grapes!

RASPBERRY
Framboise (F) Himbeere (G) Lampone (I) Frambuesa (S)
Herbaceous yet fruity, raspberry is classic youthful cool-climate Syrah. Also found in Pinot Noir (slightly warmer climate than cherry). In other varieties it may indicate an over-vigorous canopy.
Combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl formate and various acids and esters

REDCURRANT
Groseille rouge (F) Johannisbeere (G) Ribes rosso (I) Grosella roja (S)
Youthful Pinot Noir, probably cool-climate.

RHUBARB
Rhubarbe (F) Rhabarber (G) Rabarbaro (I) Ruibarbo (S)
Some yeasts (e.g., Lalvin 71B-1122) tend to produce a rhubarb-like fruitiness, particularly in wines that have undergone carbonic maceration.

STEWED APPLE
Pomme en compote (F) Apfelkompott (G) Mela cotta (I) Compota de manzana (S)
More distinctive than the simple amylic apple aroma.
b-damascenone
See also
APPLE BLOSSOM, APPLE, APPLE PEEL, GREEN APPLE

STRAWBERRY
Fraise (F) Erdbeere (G) Fragole (I) Fresa (S)
Classic ripe Pinot Noir. Hybrids Castor and Pollux also have a strawberry perfume, but can be quite cloying.
Furaneol, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl formate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl cinnamate

SUMMER FRUITS
Fruits rouges (F) Sommerfrüchte (G) Frutti di bosco (I) Frutas del bosque (S)
Either more complex or less distinct medley of raspberry, strawberry, blackberry, blackcurrant.
Ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate

TOMATO
Tomate (F) Tomate (G) Pomodoro (I) Tomate (S)
A ripe tomato taste can by found in some white (Sylvaner) and red (Merlot, Pinot Noir and various Italian) wines.
Trans-2-pentanal

TROPICAL FRUIT
Fruits tropicaux (F) Tropenfrucht (G) Frutta tropicale (I) Fruta tropical (S)
Usually New World whites, particularly Chardonnay, but can be found in Old World wines, even Champagne (from Sézanne).
b-damascenone

FLOWERS - FRUITS - VEGETABLES - HERBS & SPICES - NUTS, DAIRY & OTHER - NOTES